Narratee

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The narratee is the person to whom a narrator recounts the narrative.

Contents

Definition

Often conflated with the implied reader— althougth a fictionalised or rhetorically distinct narratee, different from the implied reader, may be an explicit receiver addressed by the narrator, with a personality, ideological assumptions, etc., distinct from those of the implied reader. The narratee is separate from the reader, providing the narrator with someone to narrate to who many times responds to and interacts with the narrator. Some narratees are fleshed out as full-fledged fictional characters, part of the fiction, and in some works they may also take turns as fictional narrators.

Examples

Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness

Critical Debates

{is the term contested, challenged, defined differently, etc.?}

Related Terms

{list any terms that are related or usefully connected to this term or concept (e.g., list story under the definition of discourse)}

References

Chatman, Seymour. "How Loose Can Narrators Get? (And How Vulnerable Can Narratees Be?)." Narrative 3.3: 303-306.

_____. "Authors and Readers: Real and Implied." In Chatman, Reading Narrative Fiction. New York: Macmillan, 1993. 240-72. (The Real Author; the Implied Author; The Implied Author Is Not the Narrator; Problems Solved by the Notion of Implied Author; The Real Jack London and Two Different Implied 'Jack Londons'; The Real Reader and the Implied Reader; The Implied Reader Is Not the Narratee).

García Landa, José Angel. "El narratario." In García Landa, Acción, Relato, Discurso: Estructura de la ficción narrativa. Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, 1998. 385-90.

_____. "Narrador, narración y narratario." Section 3.2. of García Landa, Acción, Relato, Discurso: Estructura de la ficción narrativa. Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, 1998. 279-390.

_____. "Narrador, narración y narratario." Section 3.2. of García Landa, Acción, Relato, Discurso: Estructura de la ficción narrativa. Online ed. 2009. http://www.unizar.es/departamentos/filologia_inglesa/garciala/publicaciones/ard/3.2.Discurso.html

_____. "El lector textual." In García Landa, Acción, Relato, Discurso: Estructura de la ficción narrativa. Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, 1998. 415-26. (Concepto - Lector textual, lector proyectado, lector histórico, lector ideal, lector… ¿pero es que existen todos? – La competencia literaria).

Genette, Gérard. Nouveau discours du récit. (Poétique). Paris: Seuil, 1983.

Hansen, Per Krogh. "A Real Story? On Hans Christian Andersen's Sense of Narrativity and His Double Narratee." In When We Get to the End: Towards a Narratology of the Fairy Tales of Hans Christian Andersen. Ed. Per Krogh Andersen and Marianne Wolff Lundholt. Odense: UP of Southern Denmark, 2005. 99-118.

Nestvold, Ruth. "'Do You Want to Hear about It?' The Use of the Second Person in Electronic Fiction." http://www.ruthnestvold.com/2nsper.htm

Perdomo H., Alicia. "Un constructo: El narratario." Revista Virtual Contexto 6.8 (2002). Reissued in Monografías.com http://www.monografias.com/trabajos30/constructo-narratario/constructo-narratario.shtml

Phelan, James. "Narrating the PC Controversies: Thoughts on Dinesh D'Souza's Illiberal Education." In Phelan, Narrative as Rhetoric: Technique, Audiences, Ethics, Ideology. Columbus (OH): Ohio State UP, 1996. 154-72.

Pozuelo Yvancos, José María. "El pacto narrativo: Semiología del receptor inmanente en el 'Coloquio de los perros'." Anales Cervantinos 27 (1978): 147-76.

Prince, Gerald. "Notes toward a Characterization of Fictional Narratees". Genre 4.1 (1971): 100-106.

_____. "On Readers and Listeners in Narrative." Neophilologus 55.2 (1971): 117-22.

_____. "Introduction à l'étude du narrataire". Poétique 14 (1973): 178-196.

_____. "Introduction to the Study of the Narratee." 1973. In Reader-Response Criticism. Ed. Jane P. Tompkins. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1980. 7-25. (Reworked into Prince, Narratology 16-26).

_____. "Introduction to the Study of the Narratee." In Essentials of the Theory of Fiction. Ed. Michael J. Hoffman and Patrick D. Murphy. Durham (NC): Duke UP, 1988. 313-35.

_____. "Introduction to the Study of the Narratee." Selection. In Narratology: An Introduction. Ed. Susana Onega and José Angel García Landa. London: Longman, 1996. 190-202.

_____. Narratology: The Form and Functioning of Narrative. Berlin: Mouton, 1982.

Pywowarczyk, Mary Ann. "The Narratee and the Situation of Enunciation: A Reconsideration of Prince's Theory." Genre 9 (1976): 161-77.

Richardson, Brian. "The Other Reader's Response: On Multiple, Divided, and Oppositional Audiences." Criticism 39.1 (1997): 31-53.

Schmid, Wolf. "II. Die Instanzen des Erzählwerks." In Schmid, Elemente der Narratologie. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 2005. 47-112.* (1. Modell der Kommunikationsebenen. 2. Der abstrakte Autor. 3. Der abstrakte Leser. 4. Der fiktive Erzähler. 5. Der fiktive lester).

Silver, Brenda. "The Reflecting Reader in Villette." In Critical Essays on Charlotte Brontë. Ed. Barbara Timm Gates. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1990.

Stewart, Garrett. Dear Reader: The Conscripted Audience in 19th Century British Fiction.

Villanueva, Darío. "Narratario y lectores implícitos." In Estudios en honor de R. Gullón. Ed. L. T. González del Valle and D. Villanueva. Society of Spanish Studies, 1984. 343-6. Prince, Gerald. Dictionary of Narratology

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